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Second Grade

Second Grade

Second Grade


Dear Parent/Guardian,
Well-communicated standards provide you with the information you need to have a better understanding of what your child is to learn in a specific grade level and in a specific subject. Your knowledge of the standards will help you frame your questions for parent-teacher conferences; select reading and writing materials for the home; and shape your visits to public libraries and other places of interest.
English-Language Arts
Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
  • Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.
Reading Comprehension
  • Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade two, students continue to make progress toward this goal.
Literary Response and Analysis
  • Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the structural features of the text and literary terms of elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.


Writing Strategies
  • Students write clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing successive versions).
Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
  • Students write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the drafting, research, and organizational strategies in Writing Standard 1.0.


  • Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.
Listening and Speaking Strategies
  • Students listen critically and respond appropriately to oral communication. They speak in a manner that guides the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.
Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
  • Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

History-Social Science

People Who Make a Difference
Students in grade two explore the lives of actual people who make a difference in their everyday lives and learn the stories of extraordinarypeople from history whose achievements have touched them, directly orindirectly.  The study of contemporary people who supply goods and services aids in understanding the complex interdependence in ourfree-market system.
  • Differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened yesterday.
  • Demonstrate map skills by describing the absolute and relative locations of people, places, and environments.
  • Explain governmental institutions and practices in the United States and other countries.
  • Understand basic economic concepts and their individual roles in the economy and demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills.
  • Understand the importance of individual action and character and explain how heroes from long ago and the recent past have made a difference in other’s lives (e.g., from biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Louis Pasteur, Sitting Bull, George Washington Carver, Albert Einstein, Golda Meir, Jackie Robinson, Sally Ride).


By the end of grade two, students understand place value and number relationships in addition and subtraction, and they use simple concepts of multiplication.  They measure quantities with appropriate units.  They classify shapes and see relationships among them by paying attention to their geometric attributes.  They collect and analyze data and verify the answers.
Number Sense
  • Understand the relationship between numbers, quantities, and place value in whole numbers up to 1,000.
  • Estimate, calculate and solve problems involving addition and subtraction of two-and three-digit numbers.
  • Model and solve problems by representing, adding and subtracting amounts of money.
  • Use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands places.
Algebra and Functions
  • Students model, represent, and interpret number relationships to create and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
Measurement and Geometry
  • Understand that measurement is accomplished by identifying a unit of measure, iterating (repeating) that unit, and comparing it to the item to be measured.
  • Identify and describe the attributes of common figures in the plane and of common objects in space.
Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
  • Collect numerical data and record, organize, display, and interpret the data on bar graphs and other representations.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of patterns and how patterns grow and describe them in general ways.
Mathematical Reasoning
  • Make decisions about how to set up a problem.
  • Solve problems and justify their reasoning.
  • Note connections between one problem and another.


Physical Sciences
  • The motion of objects can be observed and measured.
Life Sciences
  • Plants and animals have predictable life cycles.
Earth Sciences
  • Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human activities.
Investigation and Experimentation
  • Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting  careful investigations. To understand this concept and to address the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.